September 26, 2020

TRADITIONAL SPORTS

BRUNEI

This game is played by boys in two equal teams in a playing ground. A ‘kes' box is made by drawing a square with a crossing line in it on the ground). A standing base is made about 8 to 10 feet away from the box.

Each player brings his own marble or rubber seed. The leader of each group, throws their marbles into the box. To decide which group to play, the nearest marble to the intersection point of the crossing line will play first while the other group put their marbles into the box.

The first team will take turns to throw their marbles to a place near and around the box. In the course of the game, they must not let their marbles to go inside or stop anywhere within a pace away from the box. Otherwise they are out of the game.

From these respective positions. the marbles are thrown to hit the group of marbles at the centre of the box. When a players is ‘out’, his marble is put together with the rest of the marbles at the centre of the box. Another player of the first team must hit his team-mate's marble out of the box area in order to put him back in the game.

Players say “sudah!" when they finish their move.

The winning players will keep on playing until all members of the team are out of the game. Then the losing team will take their turn to play.

A track of about 1,500 metres is laid in a plain field or on the beach.

Competitors taking part are experienced buffalo riders, usually buffalo owners and keepers.

A competitor must have a buffalo and a whip of 2 feet in length. At the starting point, the riders sit on their respective buffaloes.

During the race, the buffaloes are whipped or beaten to run as fast as they can.

The first to reach the finishing line is the winner, the second is the runner up and so on, respectively. Prizes are given to the winners.

A rattan shaped into a ring or circular loop called telikit and a wooden spear or long pole is needed for the game of Telikit.

One player stands at one of a given space to throw the telikit towards the rest of the players who wait with their ‘spears’ at the other end. Once the telikit is thrown towards them, players will compete among themselves could thrust his spear through the telikit so as to ‘kill’ it.

This means that one must be able to judge for the right moment to strike or throw his spear when faced with a running target such as in pursuit of wild animals for a kill.

Therefore, in the game, in order to enhance the fun.

Each throw of the telikit is marked by the thrower by saying what kind of animal is going to run towards the ‘hunters’ at the other end before he makes the throw.

One person (preferably a small boy) sits in a squatting position and joins his hands together underneath his knees.

The other players will try to lift the squatting boy with one hand as many times as he can similar to as in weight-lifting exercises.

The one who can do the most number of lifts wins the competition.

One person acts as the ‘wild animal’ (tiger, bear, wild boar, etc) which tries to defend itself by attacking the ‘hunters’. In this case the ‘hunters’ have to run away for safety by climbing available nearby trees.

An escaping hunter must jump up a tree to the highest height he can reach and lift his whole body up away from the reach of the hands of the pursuing ‘animal’.

If one is ‘caught’, he will be the next to become the ‘attacking animal’ until he can catch another ‘victim’ who will take his place.

Two players face each other with their hands placed across each other's shoulders.

Another person who is going to ‘collect’ the honey from the bees’ nest up on the tree will climb up over the two persons without letting his body touch the ground.

The winner will be the one who can do as many ‘climbs’ as he can. If any part of his body touches the ground this will terminate his turn in the game.

The next competitor will take his turn to do the same thing all over again.

This game comprises of two teams with at least 3 players or not more that 8 players in each team. All players are required to sit in two lines facing the finishing line.

Each team has a leader. Lots are drawn to determine which team starts the game. The opposing team must pretend to put the item which they want to hide into the hand of each player.

However. the item is placed in the clutch of only one player. Then the leader of the other team will guess or try to locate the item by groping the players’ hands.

lf she guess is right. the team wins and will move a step forward. that is by directing the player sitting at the back of the line to sit in front.

If the team fails. it will remain in its usual position.

The game is played only by boys. It is played in a steep hilly area which is covered by grass. This game may be played only when the grass is dry because if enables them to slide from the top to the foot of the hill.

To start the game the player takes a dry coconut palm frond by shredding the leaves and making use of about 4 or 5 feet of the palm frond which is bare.

The cut palm frond is taken to a steep hill area and the game starts from the top of the hill.

The dry frond is placed on the ground and the player aita astride it holding the upper part of the palm frond with both his hands.

From that positions he pushes the palm frond forward and slides downwards toi the foot of the Hill.

The game is played only for leisure.

The game is played in a clear playing field. Players stand on one leg. The other leg is held by one hand to prevent it from touching the ground.

  When the players are ready, the game game starts with the players trying to knock his opponent off balance.

Any player who is unable to keep his balance and lets his other leg touch the ground or releases his grip on the leg is considered out.

Players form a circular ring, hand in hand, in a playing field.

Two players are chosen to be the chicken and the fox.

The chicken is kept inside the ring while the fox is outside at the start of the game.

The fox tries its best to enter the ring to catch the chicken while the latter must stay alert.

If the guards loosen their hold and the fox is able to get inside the ring, the chicken must flee the ring. The circle of hands always gives way to the chicken.

The game ends when the fox catches the chicken.

A change of players occur as the fox and chicken will begin the next round of the game.

Coconut shells (bottom halves of coconut shell bored at their center bases) is needed for this game.

Players each with their own coconut shells line up in two groups facing each other. Every two players hold up their shells, hit them against each others’ and let go.

Players whose shells fall inverted to the ground from a group who plays first. The rest place their shells in a single row at a distance of 10 - 12 feet away from one another on a field.

In the course of the game, the following stages are followed:

Kuif

The player stands back-facing opponent's shell by placing his shell at the back of his foot and with not more than two kicks, he back-kicks his shell so as to hit the opponent's shell.

If he fails, he is out and a fellow player must save him by playing twice. When all the players succeed in hitting the opponents' shells, they proceed to the second stage.

Kelambucii

Shell is held by the toes and thrown to hit an opponenr's shell with two throws, i.e. first throw to a location near to the destined shell while the second to hit. lf the player fails, he is out and similarly a fellow player must save him.

Pindu Kcina

Shell is thrown by using one hand and in a single throw to hit an opponent's shell. Players must be careful in their toss such that their coconut shells are still inverted while striking their opponents shells. Otherwise the player is out and similarly a fellow player must save him.

Pindu Caiuk

Using one hand, the player first throws his shell to a place near the opponent's shell. Then with a second throw the latter is struck. Should the first throw hit any opponent's shell, the player is punished by the opponent.

The latter will throw the former's shell with all his might. Then the game is continued. Should he fail to strike, he is out.

Sangoi

Without looking at the opponent’s shells, the player holds his shell with one hand and knocks each and every one of the opponent's shells as he passes along them. If he misses to knock any one of them, he is out. But similarly he must be saved.

Patah

This last stage requires the player to throw his shell forward and make a marking on the spot where it lands and from this spot , the player stands facing backwards towards the opponent's shell, spreads his legs and throws his shell backwards to hot the latter.

The first throw must not hit any of the opponent's shells. Otherwise he, is punished by frog-jumping forward three times with all his might from the position of his shell. At the same time, three opponent's shells are piled one on top of another alternately, i.e. inverted shell at the bottom and at the top of the pile.

The player then leaps three times backwards with all his might and hits the pile from his back. If he fails, he is out. If the pile is knocked down, he is still in the game.

This stage concludes one round of the game and it will start all over from the first stage.

This game requires ‘Timbaran’ bark or any piece of rope and ring.

A player is first chosen to be the ‘nengkap', i.e. one who will look for the hidden ring. In the old days, the ‘timbaran' bark is made into a piece of rope but today any piece of rope or string can be used instead.

The rope is passed through the ring and tied at its ends forming a continuous circular shape.

Players stand in a circle and hold the rope with both hands. The ‘nengkap' sits at the centre of the circle with his/her eyes covered.

A song is sung as the ring is passed around and along the rope in one particular direction.

A player hides it in one of his hands while still holding the rope.

When the song ends, the ‘nengkap' will guess where the ring is. If he/she guesses correctly, the player who hides the ring will be the next ‘nengkap'.

Otherwise the former will still become the ‘nengkap' until he/she is able to guess correctly.

INDIA

Kho-Kho ranks as one of the most popular traditional sports in India.

The origin of Kho-Kho is difficult to trace, but many historians believe, that it is a modified form of 'Run Chase', which in its simplest form involves chasing and touching a person.

With its origins in Maharashtra, Kho-Kho in ancient times, was played on 'raths' or chariots, and was known as Rathera.

Kho Kho is one of the most popular sports in India, and can be played by men, women and even children. It is essentially a version of tag, which endows it with a few qualities—it is both simple, and inexpensive—that make the game as enduring as it is endearing.

Kho Kho is played in 2 teams of 12, in a field that measures 27 m by 15 m, but only nine players take the field for a game or contest.

A match consists of two innings. An innings consists of chasing and running turns of 7 minutes each.

The game start with 8 members of the "chasing" team sitting or kneeling in a row in the middle of the court in their eight squares on the central line, alternately facing the opposite directions.

Two wooden poles stand at either end of this central line. The ninth player is the "chaser," and he takes his position next to one of the two poles, ready to begin the pursuit.

The opponent team enter the field, in batches of three are called defenders. These defenders, or dodgers, try to play out the 7 minutes time, and the chasers who try to dismiss them within that time.

A defender can be dismissed in three ways:

1) if he is touched by an active chaser with his palm without committing a foul,

2) if he goes out of the limits on his own,

3) if he enters the limit late.

Chasers run in one direction around the centre line where 8 members are sitting and cannot run in reverse course, and also cannot cut across the central line of sitters, even though the dodgers may run wherever they like. Chasers have to run around the entire line (row).

An active chaser can change position with a seated chaser, by touching him from behind (whose back must be facing you) by palm, and uttering the word 'kho' loudly, and simultaneously, chase or attack is build up through a series of 'khos' as the chase continues with a relay of chasers.

After the first set of 3 defenders is caught, the next batch of 3 is sent onto the field.

At the end of the innings there is an interval of 5 minutes and an interval of 2 minutes, in between the turns. Each side alternates between chasing and defence.

Kho-Kho can be played by men, women and children of all ages. The game requires a very small piece of evenly surfaced ground, rectangular in shape, and 27m by 15m. The only equipment required are the two poles. The game lasts not more than 37 minutes.

A match consists of 2 innings. An inning consists of chasing and running turns of 9 minutes each. Each side alternates between chasing and defense.

The objective is to tag all the opponents in the shortest time possible; the quickest team wins.

This is an interesting traditional game played in villages, which has riverbanks. As this game needs sand for playing it was played in riverbanks. This game increases skills like face reading, direction finding and hiding things without others knowledge even if the opponent is in front.

Things Required:

• Two Players

• Sand filled ground

• Stick/shell/ Cotton Lamp wick

How to Play:

A sand stage of size 1 to 1.5 feet length and width with height of 4 to 5 inches is made and the players decide who is going to hide the stick and who is going to find it.

Then the player who is going to hide takes the stick and holds it in two fingers (thumb and index finger) and insert it in the sand stage from one side of it and collects it on the other side using the other hand in such a way that the stick is inside the sand and is not visible.

The player has to move the stick inside the sand, confuse the opponent, and position it in a place. The person will sing the following song while he/she hides the stick

Kichi Kichi Thambalam

Kiya Kiya Thambalam

Macdhu Machu Thambalam

Maya Maya Thambalam

He/she does this in such a way that the opponent gets confused and tries to find it. The opponent gets only one chance to find the stick, he/she needs to observe the movement of the hand and face of the player who hides the stick and should conclude were the stick would be and point it to the player who hid the stick.

If he/she fails then the player who hid the stick get one point and he/she will get a chance to hide the stick for the second time, if the player finds the stick then he/she gets the chance to hide the stick in the second round.

The game will continue until any one player wins 10 games. Once a player win 10 games the opponent should take a handful of sand and put a stick inside the sand and the winner will close the loser’s eyes with his/her hands and take him to some place and ask the loser to put the sand in ground and bring him back to the starting place by eyes closed.

Then the loser should search the place where he/she put the sand in ground, if he/she fails then he/she needs to do what the winner says.

Gilli Danda is played with two sticks: a large one called a danda, which is used to hit a smaller one, the gilli.

Gilli Danda is an ancient sport of India, possibly with origins over 2500 years ago. It is believed to be the origin of Western games such as cricket, baseball and softball.

Standing in a small circle, the player balances the gilli on a stone in an inclined manner (somewhat like a see-saw) with one end of the gilli touching the ground while the other end is in the air.

The player then uses the danda to hit the gilli at the raised end, which flips it into the air. While it is in the air, the player strikes the gilli, hitting it as far as possible.

Having struck the gilli, the player is required to run and touch a pre-agreed point outside the circle before the gilli is retrieved by an opponent. This aspect of the game is similar to runs in cricket or home-runs in baseball.

There is no official maximum number of players or teams. Gilli-danda can be played where each individual plays for themselves, or between two teams.

The gilli becomes airborne after it is struck. If a fielder from the opposingteam catches the gilli, the striker is out.

If the gilli lands on the ground, the fielder closest to the gilli has one chance to hit the danda (which has to be placed on top of the circle used) with a throw (similar to a run out in cricket).

If the fielder is successful, the striker is out; if not, the striker scores one point and gets another opportunity to strike. The team (or individual) with the most points wins the game.

If the striker fails to hit the gilli in three tries, the striker is out (similar to a strikeout in baseball).

After the gilli has been struck, the opposing players need to return to the circle or, in the best case, catch it in mid-air without its hitting the ground - this was believed to have later evolved into a Catch Out in cricket and baseball.

As an amateur youth sport, gilli-danda has many regional variations.

In some versions, the number of points a striker scores depends on the distance the gilli falls from the striking point.

The distance is measured in terms of the length of the danda, or in some cases the length of the gilli. Scoring also depends on how many times the gilli was hit in the air in one strike. If it travels a certain distance with two mid-air strikes, the total points are doubled.

The most popular indigenous game in the state of Assam is Dhopkhel. An ancient game, it is closely related with the development of the state as such.

The game requires absolute physical fitness - speed, stamina and acrobatic skills.

Dhop is a seasonal game, played during the state's Spring Festival, known as Rangoli Bihu. The game really flowered under the royal patronage of the Ahoms.

There are two types of Dhop, one played by men and the other by women.

The game, which uses a rubber ball, is played by two teams comprising 11 players each, in an open field, 125 m in length and 80 m in breadth, with a central point in the right middle of the arena.

Two lines called kai are drawn at a distance of 12 ft on each side of the point at the centre.

At the four points where the kai meets the 125 m lines, four flags are planted. Similarly, four flags are planted in the four corners, known as chukor nishan.

Parallel to the central point in each half of the field, is one point each, at a distance of 13'6" from the centre, and circles surrounding them known as gher. The game begins with the dhop i.e the ball being thrown in the air, by a player.

If the ball does not fall in the opponent's court, it is to be thrown again. The dhop has to be caught by the opposing team, and if they fail, then the other team takes the throw.

If caught, the player who takes the catch proceeds to the gher of the court, and throws it to the katoni, who stands on the other gher.

If the thrower fails on either count, his team forfeits the chance of a throw at the katoni, and the guilty player is requested to deliver a high lob to the opposing team, like the lob which started the game.

The opposing team thus gets a chance once more for a catch and throw, at the opponents' katoni. If the katoni is hit below the waist, it is considered a kota, and the katoni becomes a hoia or a bondha, and automatically loses his status of a ghai - a name initially used for all the players.

The bondha goes over to the opposing side and tries to prevent the players of the team from catching the dhop.

This move is known as aulia. If a bondha succeeds in catching the dhop in the opponents' court and can recross over to his original side without being touched by any of the opponents, he becomes a ghai, and this move is known as hora.

However, he has to cross both kais and he cannot leave the court in the process of crossing over, or catching the dhop in the zone between two kais.

If a team loses ten ghais as hoia or bondha, then the last ghai will be named ghai katoni, and if a kota can be done to him, then it is known as piriutha, which signifies victory for the side.

If at the end of the game, there are equal number of ghais, the game is pronounced a draw.

In this rather peculiar canoe race, the craft is built from the stem of a coconut tree, and can be of any size for its one or two participants.

But in a race, the number of participants must be similar for each canoe.

15 to 20 participants take part at a time, the land of Nicobar being sandy and even. All the participants sit in their canoes keeping one leg in the canoe, and the other on the ground.

They drive their canoe on the sand with the force of their limbs. The one who completes the distance in the shortest span of time is the winner.

This activity involves great strength of body, especially in the hands.

Gella - Chutt is an indigenous game of the state of Tripura.

The number of participants varies from place to place within the state, and there is no rigidity as far as the dimensions of the area to be played is concerned.

One group is called the out group, while the other is called the in group. Each group can have 7 to 10 players, if not more.

The in group selects one player as the king, who takes up his position at a point about 20 to 25 metres away from his team members.

All the players of the king's group are confined to a specified marked area which is called ghar ( house ).

The members of the out group spill over the entire area to foil the king in his attempts to reach the ghar, without being touched by any member of the out group.

As the game begins, players of the in group run one by one, shouting ' kut, kut ' or any other word of their choice. The players of the in group attempt to touch out players or make way for the king's safe passage to the ghar.

The in players are permitted to stay in the king's chamber, and make a human chain from where they can touch out the out players, who are then considered dead.

A player declared dead can no longer participate in the game.

Thus, the king's defenders keep his foes at bay, while the king himself is involved in finding a way, whereby he can outwit his enemies and reach the ghar safely.

This very process of leaving his room for the house is Gella - chutt, which literally translated means ' the king ran away '.

The moment the king ventures out of his room, all the out players rush to touch him, and if any one of them succeeds, the king is declared dead.

The two groups then interchange their roles.

A traditional game of the Indian state of Mizoram, Inbuan resembles combat-wrestling.

The sport is played in a circle, 15 to 16 feet in diameter, on a carpet or grass.

The winner, is the one who succeeds in lifting his opponent off the ground, using strength, skill and rapid movement of the arms and legs.

By using the legs, the aim is to loosen the grip of an opponent's legs or feet, but kicking is prohibited.

The contest is conducted over three rounds, each of 30 to 60 second duration, or till one of the players is lifted off the ground.

Stepping outside the ring and bending of knees is not permitted.

The belt or catch-hold rope, around the waist, has to remain tight all through the game.

Inbuan as a sport became known only, after the Mizos migrated from Burma to the Lushai hills.

It is said, that it was invented in the village of Dungtland in 1750 A.D.

It is a game of strength, which every newcomer to the village had to demonstrate, when matched against the strongest man in the village.

Insuknawr or rod - pushing is an indigenous game of the state of Mizoram, played only by men.

It is a test of sheer strength and stamina.

The game is played within a circle with a diameter of 16 to 18 ft, and the only instrument used is a rounded wooden rod or pole, 8 ft long and 3 to 4 inches in diameter.

The aim of the game is to push the opponent out of the circle within three to five rounds.

Before the game begins, each player holds the rod under his arm, as in the game of tug of war. The end of the rod should project for at least four inches under the armpit, and the centre of the rod must align with the centre of the circle.

A round is considered as drawn if no player is pushed out of the circle within 60 seconds. If all three rounds are drawn, a tie - breaker is declared, without any time limit, until a player is pushed out.

In this contest, each player tries to push his opponent out of the ring, through the back or the side of the circle.

If a player falls to the ground, he is declared to be the loser.

Should the end of the rod touch the ground, negative points are awarded. Negative points help determine the winner in a drawn game, at times.

No player is to throw his opponent off balance by pulling the latter's rod.

An expert player can skid or slide around within the circle, but the game or round is not won until a player is successfully pushed out.

Though kabaddi is primarily an Indian game that is 4,000 year old. It is a team sport, which requires both skill and power, and combines the characteristics of wrestling and rugby.

Kabaddi is known by various names viz. Chedugudu or Hu-Tu-Tu in southern parts of India, Hadudu (Men) and Chu - Kit-Kit (women) in eastern India, and Kabaddi in northern India.

In Kabaddi, two teams compete with each other for higher scores, by touching or capturing the players of the opponent team.

Each team consists of 12 players, of which seven are on court at a time, and five in reserve. The two teams fight for higher scores, alternating defence and offense.

The court is as large as that for a dodge ball game.

The game consists of four quarters of 10 minutess, with a break of five minutes for change of sides.

The kabaddi playing area is 13m x 10m, divided by a line into two halves.

The side winning the toss sends a 'raider', who enters the opponents' court chanting, 'kabaddi-kabaddi'.

The raider's aim is to touch any or all players on the opposing side, and return to his court in one breath. The person, whom the raider touches, will then be out.

The aim of the opposing team, will be to hold the raider, and stop him from returning to his own court, until he takes another breath. If the raider cannot return to his court in the same breath while chanting 'kabaddi', he will be declared out.

Each team alternates in sending a player into the opponents' court. If a player goes out of the boundary line during the course of the play, or if any part of his body touches the ground outside the boundary, he will be out, except during a struggle.

The team scores a lona ( a bonus of two points), if the entire opposition is declared out.

The game then continues by putting all the players on both sides. Matches are staged on the basis of age-groups, and weight. Seven officials supervise a match - one referee, two umpires, two linesmen, a time keeper and a scorer.

Kabaddi is recognised in three forms:

• Surjeevani

• Gaminee

• Amar

The 'Surjeevani' form of Kabaddi, one player is revived against one player of the opposite team who is out. i.e. one out, one in.

In the 'Gaminee' type of Kabaddi, there is no revival. When all the players of team are out, the game ends. So there is no time limit in this category.

In the 'Amar' form of Kabaddi, whenever any player is touched (out), he does not go out of the court, but stays inside, and one point is awarded to the team that touched him. In this way, one point for each touch of the opposite team, i.e. to the team who touches the anti player. This game is also played on a time basis, i .e the time is fixed.

Variations of the game includes circle kabaddi and beach kabaddi.

This version of hockey is distinctively Manipuri in character, and as wrestling too forms part of the game, the name sometimes changes to Mukna - Kangjei or wrestling hockey.

The origin of the game is traced back to the prehistoric Hayichak era, before Christ.

According to the tale attached to the game's genesis, a young boy of the royal household was spotted playing with a curved club and a round object. He was immediately named ' Kangba ' and eventually, when he ascended the throne of Manipur, he became a staunch supporter of the game, not unlike hockey, which the local people termed ' Kangjei Shanaba '.

Another version has it that King Kangba of a prehistoric era, began the games - Kangjei (hockey on foot ) and Sagol Kangjei ( polo ).

It is a seven - a - side game and each player plays with a cane stick, about four to four and a half feet in length, shaped very much like the present day hockey stick.

The game starts when the ball is lobbed into play in centre field ( hantre huba ).

A player is permitted to carry the ball made of bamboo root, and kick it, but a goal can only be scored when the ball is struck by the stick over the goal line. The ball, white in colour, with a diameter of about 3" to 3 1/2 " is called kangdrum.

There are no goal posts. The game can turn into a trial of strength between opposing players.

A player holding the ball and on his way to scoring a goal can be tackled by a player of the opposing side and made to submit to a trial of strength, locally known as Mukna, which is Manipuri wrestling.

The game ends when one side or the other scores the agreed number of goals, and the duration is generally 1 1/2 hours.

The strokes are usually restricted to the nearside. This lends protection to the legs from an opponent's swinging stick.

No player is permitted to tackle another player, obstruct him or hold him, if either is without a stick.

Each player in the team of seven assume the following positions :

a) Pun - Ngakpa ( Full back), b) Pun - Ngakchun ( Half back), c) Punlluk ( Left wing ), d) Langjei ( Centre ), e) Pulluk (Right wing), f) Pun - Jen ( In ), g) Pun - Jenchun ( In)

The opposing team takes up positions in the reverse order.

Mallakhamb is an ancient traditional Indian sport.

'Malla' means gymnast, and 'khamb' means pole. Thus, the name 'Mallakhamb' stands for 'a gymnast's pole'.

The origin of Mallakhamb can be traced to the 12th century, where it is mentioned in Manas-Olhas - a classic by Chalukya in 1135 A.D.

The apparently simple 'khamb' does not reveal the complexities of the exercises, which require the performer to turn, twist, stretch and balance on the pole. It is this consummate grace, this agility, dexterity and suppleness of body, combined with quick reflexes, muscle coordination and sense of timing, that single out this game as special.

At present, the following forms of Mallakhamb are prevalent:

Plain Mallakhamb - fixed on the ground

In this, a vertical wooden pole is fixed in the ground. The wood used is usually teakwood or sheeshum, preferred because of its twin characteristics of toughness and smoothness. The pole stands 225 cm above ground level. It has a circumference of 55 cm at its lower end, 45 cm in the middle, and 30 cm at the upper end. The height of the neck is 20 cm, and its circumference is 15 cm, and radius of the upper knobe is 13 cm.

Hanging Mallakhamb

A smaller version of the fixed Mallakhamb, it is suspended with the aid of hooks and chains. The swinging and revolving motion of this type of Mallakhamb renders the exercises quite difficult and exacting.

Cane or Rope Mallakhamb

Here, a cotton rope which is 2.5 cm thick, replaces the wooden pole. The performers are expected to strike various yogic poses, without knotting the rope in any way.

Revolving Bottle Mallakhamb

This is a recent innovation, and consists of 32 glass bottles placed on a wooden platform, with the Mallakhamb balanced on top.

The other forms of this sport include the Baseless Mallakhamb and Fixed Bottle Mallakhamb. Recently, a few more variations have been introduced, viz. Inclined and Suspended Mallakhamb.

INDONESIA

Cungkup Milang Konde consist of three words:  Cungkup means a house protecting a grave; milang means to count (it comes from wilang) and Konde means a knot of a woman's hair.

A leisure game with no relation to any event in the community life. This is a traditional game played for entertainment and leisure purposes.

A prominent element in this game is the art of voice. The players sing together while the girls takes care of their younger brothers or sisters.

Nevertheless, they will join the game and may try to guess the number of gravels that are not exactly known. This traditional game is well-known to the people of Central Java. Although the game was widely developed from one village to another in the rural areas of central Java.

This game is played by the girls between the ages of 7 – 17 years and the number of players are between 10 to 15 persons.

The tools are some gravels the size of marbles.

The  game is accompanied with a song called cungkup milang konde and is sung together by the players. The lyrics of the song is in Javanese and can be sung in pelog or slendro.

Other children surrounding the loser with their hands at the back as if they receive gravels from one to another.

A volunteer comes to the loser and acts as a liaison between the loser and other players .

A child who acts as a judge runs from the back of the circle and claps her friends hands as if the gravel was given to her.

She does this while singing the song. Similarly, her friends may express ‘pretended expression’ by way of receiving something (gravels) from their running friend. The girl who is being punished does not join the singing but instead watches carefully every movement made by her friends.

After the singing ends, the judge comes again and asks the loser to guess the player who has the gravels. If her guess is correct, she wins and the player who has the gravels with her must replace her as a watcher. But if the guess is wrong, she must be punished again and similar procedures are repeated.

The name of serentam derives from a local dialect of Serawai people who inhabited the Pino districts.

This is a popular game played by the people when they go to the river to bathe, normally at noon. It is usually played by young boys.

There is no limit to the number of players. However. the number must be even so that groups can be divided equally.

The only tool required for the game is telasan, a piece of cloth made of cotton. The cloth is also used by the people of Serawai when they bathe. Presently, most children prefer to wear short pants than the cloth for it is more comfortable.

Two groups with equivalent number of players are considered and a leader for each group is elected. The groups then will draw lots to determine who will go first.

After the selection, the game will start and it is bound by the rules which are as follows :

1. Striking parts of the head and neck, breast and genitals is forbidden.

2. Running out from water to land is not permitted.

3. Striking the opponents must be done only by using the feet and not by any part of the body.

4. Group leaders have the right to sanction their members who break the rules.

5. The leaders will be dismissed by their members if they break the rules.

6. A group will be declared the loser if the members claim they are running out of stamina and energy.

The play will be stopped if the two groups involved agree not to continue the game.

Firstly, the two leaders, A and B, go into the water and start to attack one another. The fight is individual or one against one.

In approximately thirty minutes, one can see which group ‘wins’ and will receive applause from the audience standing by on the river bank.

The fight could last for more than one hour and may even extend to three hours.

The term, sepok siat comes from a local dialect of Lambok. The word sepok is derived from the term sekok meaning, an instrument made from a long piece of cloth.

The word sepok also means ‘to compete’ and siat means war . So the term can be understood as a war game played by the children.

It is an amusement game played by the children especially during their leisure time after retiring from the daily activities in the paddy fields .

The game is played on a paddy field during harvesting time or while looking after the crops.

A minimum number of ten players and a maximum of twenty may participate in this game. The players are usually boys between the age of 10-17 years old.

The game requires a sepok. a long twined cloth that functions as a one meter long hammer.

Any vacant ground may be used as the arena with a space of approximately 20 x 20 metres or 10 x 15 metres.

A straight line is drawn horizontally in the middle of the field to divide the arena into two equal divisions.

In each division a small circle with its diameter of one metre must be made. This circle is called as bale or “King’s House".

Each player chooses an opponent of his own size. The players will then draw lots by showing fingers to determine who starts first.

Players who win form one group while the losers form another group. Finally. each group will elect o member to be the ‘king’.

Next is to snatch the sepok. The two group members are now ready to struggle for the sepok.

A member of the first group will throw the sepok up and the sepok should land on the exact position of the midline.

If it fails to land on the target, the action must be repeated. The group that succeeds in seizing the sepok is declared the winner.

The tool is then handed over to the ‘King’ of the group. The struggle for the sepok begins with their feet in a wrestling position, arms over their head while their fingers in open position.

Usually, it is the biggest player who starts the attack on the opponent and this is followed by other players.

They may try to touch their opponent, heads, and if they succeed, the opponent will be declared ‘dead’ and is not allowed to continue.

The King who has the sepok approaches his opponent while twisting the tool over his head. Sometimes he strikes his enemy by using the sepok. and if he succeeds. the enemy is declared ‘dead’.

The King cannot be dead by the sepok but he may be eliminated if his head is touched.

lf the King’s head is successfully touched, he is declared ‘dead’ and his group must surrender.

Similarly, if all members of the group are ‘dead’ except the King. the group will be declared as the loser.

The loser must be penalized by having to carry their opponents on their backs as far as the lewot.

Lewot is a distance from one end of the arena to the other. The game may be repeated after the penalty is completed.

The term Poheru means to hit one another by using sticks made of rattan.

This game is played during a special ceremony known as upacara adat in Seba.

It is usually played in the month of Warru Dabha usually in February which is also the harvesting period for the community.

Two players play, one against one. Players normally males, may be divided into three categories; the children between the ages of 10-12 years, teenagers between 13-18 years and adults between 19-40 years old.

A piece of rattan one meter long is used in the game and the players may wear any garment they wish to.

This game is played in an open field usually in front of the Adat House.

A drum (Gendang) and a gong are played during the game.

The two players hit one another using sticks made of rattan. The target of the hit is the opponent’s calf and the hit should be as hard as possible.

Due to hard hits, the stick may break. In this case the stick can be replaced.

Before the game starts, the two players may agree to the number of strokes they will do in the round.

The agreement will also determine which leg (right calf of leg or left one) will be hit.

Normally, three strokes in one round is usual in Seba.

One of the players positions his right or left calf of leg, and the other player hits the target (his enemy's calf) as hard as possible.

During the game, a drum and a gong are sounded incessantly.

The players invokes a spell (mantera) in an effort to be invulnerable and not hurt. This magico belief and formula is called the Lipana.

The winner is the player who has more endurance than his opponent, and the loser is the one who surrenders before the round ends.

A wounded calf is also a mark of defeat.

The term Fakudo-kudo means a war-game on ‘horses’. This game depicts a war situation using strong and adroit ‘horses’.

Fakudo-kudo is a team game, and the team divide themselves into two opposite parties. In the past however, it was an individual game.

A player may test his skill. strength and ability with another player of the same age while the other players watch.

This particularly new game can be observed today in Nias.

Cooperation among members is highly essential as one must lend support to each other in order to achieve victory.

Although the competitors play on an individual basis, members of both groups will support their ‘champion’ (rider).

Players are normally teenagers between the ages of 10-13 years.

The number of players are usually ten people who are divided into two equal groups.

Each group will consist of five players, four as ‘horses’ and the other as the ‘rider’.

The four players will stand facing each other and extend their hands forward to grasp the shoulders of the members in front.

The companion's shoulders are grasped to get the strong texture that is sufficient for a rider to ride on it. In the beginning, both groups will stand on a certain distance.

When the starting sign is given, the groups will move closer.

Hence, the fight begun. Both riders will attempt to pull and push their opponent by using their utmost skill and strength until one of them falls down from the ‘horse’.

Basically, this game requires strength, skill, tricks and strategies.

The game of Barabuik-rabuik karambia limo buah is found throughout the area of Kabupoten Pasisir Selatan and in Nagari-nagari of West Sumatera.

lt is said so because the important aspect of the game is to seize five coconuts (local term : barabulk-rabuik karambia).

This recreational and competitive game is commonly played usually after the harvesting time and also during the celebrations of local and national days.

Two players are involved in the game. The game can be played either individually or in groups.

Only two players may take part in any one round of the game.

The objective of the game is to snatch and bring three of the five coconuts to the finishing line.

There is no limit in terms of age, and this game is played either by the men or women.

The game is played on a flat and open field. Boundary lines are drawn on the field. The first line is the starting line and five coconuts are set along this line.

Another line is the finishing line.

The distance between the first and second lines are approximately 50 – 100 meters.

Five coconuts are used as tools of the game. The coconuts are the main objects that are to be snatched by the players during the course of the game.

Each player must try to bring three coconuts in his hands to the finishing line. in other words, the player must snatch one coconut from his opponent in order to have three.

So does the other competitor.

When the game starts the two players begin to snatch the coconut from his competitor from one to another.

A player who succeeds in seizing three of the five coconuts and bring them to the finishing line shall be declared the winner.

The term kabonto-bonto derives from a local language of Wabula of Buton. It consists of two syllables,

Ka means, ‘doing something‘ (to play). Bonto-bonto means a wise tribal chief.

So the term means a game conducted by conveying something to the chief (bonto) secretly (through whispering).

The game is played during leisure time and it has no relation to other events in the community life.

Traditionally, people of Buton consider this game as having a sacred meaning and can only be played under moonlight.

The game of Manolo tale-tole from Kendari has similar a pattern with kabonto-bonto.

The game is commonly played by boys and young men. The numbers of players is unlimited but preferably around seven to twelve participants per group and aged between 7-15 years old may play.

No tool is required for the game. This is a game of strategy and tactics as well as leadership of the group leader in managing his group members.

The leader and his people must concentrate to find out strategies for solving their problems.

Musical accompaniments are not required. it is important to note before the game begins each player participating in a group must be familiar with their leader (Bonto).

Members of both groups or teams will stand face-to-face and the distance between each group is approximately twenty meters.

A referee will stand between these two parties. Each team shall appoint a leader who will manage as well as inspire his team.

After making complete preparations, the referee announces that the game shall begin.

The leader of group A asks a member of his own group to request a hostage from B group.

The request is delivered to Bonto by whispering (in order to keep its secret). Bonto receives this request and keeps it secret as he does the same for the group B.

On the contrary the leader of B group tries to predict the A group's request and sends a representative who may not be the target of A group.

An interesting situation is when by chance, a member presented by the group is actually the target of its opponent, he must then be a hostage for A group and cannot serve his own group anymore.

If this happened the Bonto orders the leader of B group to send his group request in effort to replace his arrested member.

Kavo Kowai, originally comes from Waropen local language.

Kavo means, ‘to stretch out’ and kowai or jubi is a kind of stick.

The combination of the two words means stretching jubi out.

Although there is another name for this game which is mimasa or adimasa instead of the term of kavo kowai but the term is rarely used.

A game quite similar to the football game called nimasa or nimasa bola for instance, is also well known.

This game requires a minimum of two players and not more than ten players. There are two age groups to play this game.

The first group consists of players aged 10-14 and the second group between 15-20 years old.

Although these two groups play separately, the pattern of the game is more or less the same.

Two arrowroot sticks are peeled in order to make good jubi that can be stuck to the ground. Each player holds a bow and an arrow in his hand.

Sometimes, they may have a few extra arrows to replace broken ones.

An arrow, in local language, is called kana. A player prepares 50 to 100 jubis.

The more jubi will be better because the players pawn them. The jubis are stuck into the ground.

If a player succeeds in shooting the object (gaba) he may pluck his opponents jubis. And if he manages to shoot the target, other players and also the spectators will shout “diao...diao...dlao".

Two arrow root sticks are stuck into the ground in opposition (30-50 meters in distance).

The players are permitted to shoot the object only once.

The players must stand behind the boundary line when they want to shoot the target.

In case a player unintentionally drops his jubi or bow during the shooting, he may repeat that particular shot.

The player who fails to control his jubis is called seian which means refused or touched.

There is only one winner in the game.

That means, only a player who successfully shoots the target gaba-gaba) may take over his opponents jubis. If more than one player achieves a similar result, the shooting must be repeated.

It should be noted that each player can only set one jubi on the ground as the other jubis are reserved.

MALAYSIA

A form of Malay art of self-defense that requires physical and mental strength.

It is played n hard, dry and plain ground as a fighting ring between two players in one game.

A ‘guru’ or silat teacher becomes the referee.

The game starts by choosing whom to hit first, i.e: a player attacking his opponent and vice versa.

Moves or hits are as follows:

+ Pukulan Kanan (right hit) - to hit with the right hand

+ Pukulan Kiri (left hit) - to hit with the left hand

+ Pukulan Balah - to strike with the right hand from above the opponent's head

+ Pukulan Simbur - to hit with both hands where the right hand of the attacker strikes the opponent's abdomen

+ Pukulan Paras - direct hit with both hands on to the opponent's chest

A player does the above 5 hits or moves in make-believe while the opponent waits and avoids all incoming hits by swiftly making signs of counter actions taken. Points are given to swift actions and counter actions.

Pencak Silat is now governed by a more elaborate international rules and is contested as a mainstream sports, including at the Asian Games and the SEA Games.

This is a popular indoor game played by Malaysian children especially among girls.

The player determines the order of play according to the points gained from scoring. The player who scores the highest number of points begins the game.

To score points, each player takes her turn to place the five pebbles in the palm of her hand. She then throws the pebbles lightly up in the air. She receives back as many pebbles as possible into the back of the same palm.

The pebbles on the back of the palm are tossed again into the air and the player must catch back all of the pebbles that are tossed, into the palm of her hand. She scores no points if she is unable to catch back any of the pebbles.

Should two players score the same number of points the players have to compete against each other in scoring again to determine whose score is higher.

There are altogether 10 steps in the game.

Step I

A player gathers all the pebbles in one hand and tosses them on the ground. She picks up any one of the pebbles and uses it for tossing. The pebble is tossed into the air and while the stone is still in the air she quickly picks up another pebble and catches the failing pebble as well, using the some hand. She places the picked pebble to one side and continues picking up each of the three remaining pebble in the same manner, one at a time.

Step II

This step is almost the same as the previous one except that two stones are picked at one time instead one at a time.

Step III

Same as above except that she gathers one stone for the first toss and then all the remaining three in the second toss.

Step IV

The player gathers all the four stones at one Toss.

Step V

The player places three stones in the palm of one hand and two stones in the other. From the hand that has got three stones she tosses up one of the stones and quickly places the remaining stones from both hands onto the ground. She must then catch the falling stone with the same hand that tossed it. At the next toss, she picks up the stones with both hands ending with three stones in one hand and two in the other as in the start of Step V.

Step VI

One hand forms a cave on the ground using the thumb and the fingers which must not be moved during this sequence. At each toss, a stone is pushed into the cave.

Step VII

At each Toss. a stone must be picked and placed on the palm of the other hand before catching back the falling stone.

Step VIII

The first stone that has been picked is held in the same hand and at the next toss, This stone is exchanged for another on the ground. All The stones must be exchanged. When all the stones have been exchanged the remaining stones must be picked up In a single toss.

Step IX

The stones are thrown on the ground. Two are selected and placed apart on the palm of a hand. They are tossed up in the air and the player quickly picks up one stone from the ground. The two falling stones are caught back in each hand. The stone that was picked up is laid aside and The play continues. The two stones remaining in one hand is tossed one after another into the palm of the other hand.

Scoring

After completing the TEN steps, a player scores in the same manner as described under the order of play. She notes down the number of points scored and starts again at Step I and continues playing through the various steps until a fault is committed.

Rules of the Game

When picking up the stones the players must not touch any other stones lying around. The player must catch the falling stone before it touches the ground. each time it is tossed into the air. At the end of each step the stones are all gathered and thrown on the ground for the next step.

The next player takes over once a fault is committed. In the next round a player continues his game at the step in which a fault was committed. The game ends when all the players decide to conclude the game. The player with the highest score is the winner.

This is a group game that is sometimes played on badminton or sepak takraw courts. However, the suggested are of play is as indicated in the diagram below.

While there are no specific rules on the size of the court, it is a norm that there should be at least 10 feet space between the lines.

The players divide themselves into two teams and appoint a leader for each team. The leader of the defending team stations him along line each diagonal line..

Defending players can move only along the lines they are guarding. The attacking team tries to pass from the front to the back and back to the front without being touched by any member of the defending team.

If any of the members of the attacking team is touched, the teams would then exchange positions and the game is restarted.

There are several variations to the game but the base rules are the same.

This is a simple outdoor game and may be played by any number of children, but ideally the number of players should not exceed 8.

Players use a stick to draw a circle 4 feet in diameter on sandy ground. The boundary line is drawn approximately 5 feet away from the circle. The order of play is determined and each player contributes two seeds or as many as is agreed among the players and place them in the circle.

Standing just behind the boundary line each player in turn uses a marble or pebbles as a striker to try and knock out the seeds from the center of the circle. The person who strikes a seed out of the circle collects the seed for himself.

After the first round of play, the distance of the striker marbles or pebbles away from the circle determines the order of play for the second round. The player whose strike is nearest the circle is the first to resume play.

The player whose striker remains in the circle will cease to play subsequent rounds in that game. The play is continued until all the seeds have been driven out of the circle or when all the players are penalized.

A fresh game starts with each player again contributing equal number of seeds into the circle and each player starts from the boundary line.

Children within the 6 - 15 age group commonly ploy this simple outdoor game. The game is reminiscent of police and thief and other forms of war games.

Each player has his own bamboo gun which is made out of a length of bamboo tube (buluh pagar) 12" to 15" long, ‘/2" in diameter.

Another length of bamboo. small enough to go through the hollow of the bamboo tube is used as a piston. Small seeds from fruit trees or wet paper are used as bullets.

Two teams shall decide which team shall be the attackers and which shall be the defenders.

Pellets made from seeds or wet paper are pushed into the bamboo pipe and forced through the other end of the pipe to hit at the running opponents.

The team with the most hits shall win. A person is considered hit if the pellet hits any part of the body below the head.

A common and popular outdoor game played by Malaysian children, especially girls, within the 6- 15 age group.

Players use chalk or stick to draw a diagram representing a house on the pavement or on sandy ground. Each player has a stone, coin or a small beaded ring that is used as her seed.

The objective of the game is to claim as many houses or spaces as possible.

The first player stands in front and tosses her seed into space 1 and leaves it there. She then hops into space 1 and then into space 2. From space 2 she jumps and lands with feet astride the middle line in space 3 and 4.

Then she hops into space 5 and jumps and lands with feet astride the middle line in space 6 and 7.

Jumping astride she turns around and proceeds to hop into space 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 in the same way that she had hopped up. When at space 1, standing on one leg she has to pick up her seed in space 1 before hopping out of the space.

She continues the play by throwing her seed into space 2 and repeats her performance again for the next round, standing on one leg in space 2 to pick up her seed before hopping into space 1 and hopping out of the space.

Similarly, she continues the play if she does not break any rules of the game by throwing her seed into space 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7. After having thrown and picked up her seed from space 1. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 she then throws her seed into the semi-circle (8).

She completes her hop to space 6 and 7. She then jumps and at the same time turns and lands with feed astride in space 6 and 7. She then squats and without looking back she gropes and picks up her seed from the semi-circle.

If she succeeds, she hops back to the starting place to claim and mark space 1 as her own house or territory. She continues to play as long as she succeeds to hop across to all the rules of the game.

The player owning the most number of spaces wins the game.

If the seed thrown by a player does not fall within the space it is supposed to go into or if the seed touches any of the line of the space, the player loses her turn of play and keeps the seed in her hand until she regains her turn of play.

A player hopping up and down cannot step on any of the lines or any other seeds around her. if she steps on any line or touches the seeds of other players her turn comes to an end but her seed remains in the space it had been thrown into.

A player has to jump or hop over a space that has an opponent's seed in it. She can only hop into a space containing an opponent's seed in it if her own seed is in that space as well. While groping for her seed in the semi-circle, a player must not touch any of the lines nor other seeds and she must not lose her balance.

A player can step into her house with both her feet but other players cannot step into her house. If a player forgets to step into her house with both her feet her house is said to have burnt down and she loses it.

This game is almost similar to Buat Rumah Batu, and it may played by as many as four players.

The object of the game is also similar to that as in Buat Rumah Batu, i.e. for a player to claim as many space as possible as her own house.

After determining the order of play, the first player stands in front of space 1 and tosses her seed into space l and leaves it there.

She then proceeds to hop into space 2. 3, 4, 5, 6. 7. 8 and 9 making sure that when she comes to space 3 and 4 she lands with feet astride the middle line and also lands on both feet in space 9.

She then proceeds to the course downwards in the same way that she had hopped up, i.e. hopping into space 5, jumping and landing with feed astride in space 3 and 4 and then hopping into space 2. She stops at space 2, and then from there, she picks up her seed from space 1 before hopping into space l and hopping out of the space.

After she succeeds in completing her first round, she then proceeds to toss her seed into space 2 and picks up her seed in space 2 on her downward course, from space 3 and 4. Similarly she tosses and picks up her seed from space 3. 4, 5, 6. 7 and 8. When she has successfully completed all her rounds the player has to walk through the space in sequence with:

(a) The seed placed on the back of the hand

(b) The seed placed on the head (c) The seed placed on a foot

For each of the positions mentioned when the player reaches space 9 she has to close her eyes and point her left or right foot into space 6, 7 and 8.

When she taps her foot into each of the space she has to call out in turn “TENG" and other players will answer “TENG-" if her toe is in the space without touching the lines of the space of another seeds. if she is successful, the player then proceeds back to the starting point where the seed is placed in position (a) (hand position) is tossed into the air and caught back into the palm of the hand.

After completing her round in position (b) (head position), the seed is dropped from the head and caught into the palm of a hand. After completing her round in position (c) (foot position), the seed is tossed from the foot and caught back into the palm of the hand.

After the player succeeds for all 3 positions she places herself behind the Home Line with her back facing the diagram of the play.

Without looking back she flips her seed over her head to determine which space becomes her house. She claims and marks the space that her seed has fallen into as her home or territory.

The seed of a player has to fall within the box it is supposed to go into and must not touch any of the lines of the space.

If the seed falls out of the space it is supposed to go into or touches any of the lines of the space, the players loses her turn of play and keeps the seed in her hand until her turn in the play comes again.

When the player is hopping up and down, she cannot step on any of the lines or any other seeds around her.

If she steps on any line of touches the send of other players her turn comes to an end but her seed remains in the space it had been thrown in.

A player has to jump or hop over a space that has an opponent's seed in it. She can only hop into a space containing an opponent's seed in it if her own seed is in that space as well. While tapping her toe into space 6, 7 and 8 she must not touch any of the lines of the space or other seeds and she must not lose her balance. if she breaks this rule the player's turn comes to an end and she continues to play from where she has stopped when her turn of play comes again.

To pick up her seed from a space, a player has to stand on one leg in the space that is just before the space into which the seed has been thrown and stoop to pick up her seed without losing her balance.

A player can step into her house with both her feet but the other players cannot step into her house. If a player forgets to step into her house with both her feet, her house is said to have burnt down and she loses it.

The game congkak is popular among young and old alike in Malaysia particularly in the northern states and it is also known in other parts of Asia and Africa.

This game has many variations of rules and board sizes and the following is the most common set of rules of the game.

A congkak match consists of several rounds of play in order to decide the winner of a match. This game is usually played by 2 players.

A 14 hole Congkak board with 2 end holes termed as Rumah is used with 98 seeds (7 seeds for each hole) is needed. Usually saga, rubber seeds, glass marbles, cowrie shells or even tamarind seeds are used. Cups or bowls can be used instead. if there is no congkak board available.

Two players sit facing each other on either side of the Congkak board. Seven seeds are placed in each of the 14 holes. Both players begin play simultaneously. Each player takes out all the seeds from any hole in his kampung and drops one seeds into each hole beginning with the hole on the left of the just emptied and going clockwise round the board.

When coming to his own rumah. he drops one seed into It but he drops none into his opponent's rumah. If the last seed in that move falls into a hole wherein there are other seeds. the whole contents are taken out and distributed as mentioned in (3) and (4) above.

Whether the hole into which the last seed was dropped in is the player's own kampung or that of his opponent. makes no difference in this case.

For example, A starts by taking all the seeds from hole R of his own kampung. One seed is dropped into each hole beginning from hole S. The seventh seed that is the last seed falls into hole X. if there are other seeds in X the whole contents are taken out and distributed beginning with hole Y.

If the last seed falls into his own rumah. the player has the advantage to continue distributing the content of any hole of his choice in his own kampung. Should the last seed falls into an empty hole in his own kampung. he shall take it out and the whole content of the hole directly opposite, in his opponent's kampung, and puts all the seeds into his rumah.

The player is deemed to be ‘dead’ and ceases play. He will regain his turn when his opponent completes playing. For example. If player B's last seed falls into Y which happens to be empty. the last seed and all the seeds in hole Z of A’ kampung is taken by B and placed in rumah B. B is ‘dead’ and ceases to play till his turn comes again.

lf the last seed falls into an empty hole in the player's own kampung and the hole directly opposite, in his opponent's kampung is also empty. that seed remains there. and the player ceases playing until it is his turn again.

And if the last seeds falls into an empty hole in the kampung of the opponent, the seed remains there and the player stops playing until it is his turn again. Only in the first round of a match both players start at the same time. If one of player ceases play. the other shall continue playing until he meets with the same fate.

Thereupon his opponent restarts and so they play alternately. Each player can only start in his kampung.

A round ends if all the holes of one of the player's kampung are empty. and the respective player had dropped his last seed either intohis own rumah or into an empty hole in the kampung of his opponent, or his last seed or seeds have been taken by his opponent. In either case his opponent must be in a position to play once more in a way that makes him stop playing also. but without being compelled to distribute again seeds into the empty hole of the other player's kampung.

The player. who has made the last move in a round, starts the next round.

Only in the first round of a match do both players start together.

After a round has ended. both players fill up again the holes of their kampungs with the content of their rumahs. The player who has lost some seeds in the preceding round fills up only as many hole in his kampung as can be filled with 7 seeds. lf, for instance. after a round has ended, A has 61 seeds and B only 37.

A fills up all the holes of his kampung with 7 seeds each and keeps the balance of l2 seeds in his rumah while B. beginning with the hole next to his rumah and continuing with the hole next to his rumah and continuing to the right. fills up the holes of his kampung, each hole with 7 seeds. and keeps 2 seeds in his rumah.

The two empty holes in B's kampung (P and Q) remain empty and are not used at all during the round that follows. If. however. B recovers during this round. a sufficient number of seeds. he can fill up for the next round more holes in his kampung again.

A match is over if after the end of any round one of the players has less than 7 seeds. so that he is unable to fill up even one hole. He is therefore declared the loser of the match.

This game is popular among Malaysian school children and may be played by both boys and girls. A feather shuttle is made by using 3 or 4 soft chicken feathers and a piece of thick paper or rubber sheet 2 inches in diameter.

The quills of the feathers are tied together and fitted into the center of the piece of thick paper of rubber sheet.

The target is to kick the feather shuttle into the air as many times as possible without dropping it onto the ground.

The players shall agree upon a maximum number of kicks to score and decide the order of play. The first player tosses the feather shuttle into the air and starts kicking it with one leg by using the side of his ankle or the instep of the foot or the knee.

As he kicks the feather shuttles, the player counts aloud the number of kicks taken. lf he misses the shuttle he loses his turn to play. The last player to finish the agreed number of kicks is the loser and he undergoes a forfeit.

A legal kick is the one that is taken by the broad side of the foot or the instep of the foot or the knee. Failing to kick the feather shuttle as mentioned means a player is said to have committed a fault and is penalized.

The penalty is imposed in the following manner: A line is drawn on the ground and the loser tosses the feather shuttle across to the winner. The winner may leave it alone if it had been a bad throw and return the feather shuttle to the loser to toss again.

Should the toss be a good one the winner may proceed to kick it up into the air to any number of times as he pleases. For every three successful kicks he has an extra life. The forfeit is completed if the loser catches the shuttle directly from the foot after it has been kicked across the line and when the winner has not managed to build up any life.

For every successful direct catch from the foot of the winner. the loser is able to cancel out one life of the winner.

The forfeit ends when the loser is able to catch up with the winner.

The game is sometimes played as a team game with two, three or four players in a team. The same forfeit applies except that it has to be taken by the team.

Although Malaysia is recognized as a major proponent of the game in the region, the origins of sepak raga itself is unclear. It is known that it has been played (by members of the royalty) in India as early as the 11th century, during the days of the Majapahit Empire.

The Filipinos, on the other hand, argue that the game Sepa originated from the Philippines. The Thais stake their claim, insisting that takraw has its beginnings in their country. It would, therefore, be safe to assume that this exciting sport was probably played in Southeast Asia at about the same Time.

ln Malaysia, at least the, there is documented evidence that the Malays have been playing this game since the heydays of The Melaka Sultanate in the 1400s.

In fact, sepak raga, as it was then known, has an unpalatable past for it was unwittingly the cause of the senseless death of Tun Besar, the son of Bendahara Sri Maharaja who happens to be one of the Melaka Sultan’s ministers.

As recounted in The Malay Annals, Tun Besar was playing The game wlth a group of friends when the ball went out of control and accidentally knocked off the headgear of Raja (Prince) Ahmad who happened to be riding by at that inopportune moment.

ln a fit of rage, the brash prince immediately drew his keris (dagger) and stabbed the unforunate Tun Besar to death.

Although the game was originally played by members of Malay royally and the inner circles of the court, it soon spread amongst the masses and eventually attained the reputation as being the ‘people's sport‘.

Traditionally, sepak raga was played by forming a circle to kick, shoulder or head the ball and keeping the ball from dropping on to the ground.

In this format more popularly known as Sepak Raga Ratus, five players take their position in a circle not more than three meters in diameters.

Each player is allowed to juggle the ball not more than three times at each turn the ball is fed to them. Points are collected only if the ball is deflected above their head. Total points collected after a ten minute routine is calculated to determine the winning team.

During the ten minutes, each team are allowed a maximum of three times dropping of the ball to the ground. If the ball falls for a fourth time, they lose their turn to collect points.

This was deemed too tame by a group of players from Penang, who decided to revamp the rules of the game and throw in more challenging moves. Thus, in 1945, the net was introduced and the game as it is played today came into being. It was initially called Sepak Raga Jaring.

A points system similar To badminton was adopted where the object of the game is for the team to score points.

In Sepak Takraw, the new name given for the old Sepak Raga Jaring, two opposing teams of three players each play the game. Each Team is permitted to hit the ball maximum of three times before it must cross the net. The same player can hit the ball three times.

To begin play, the ball is thrown to the first player called the tekong who must get the ball across the net with one kick.

The other two players act as wingers or apit. Players of the other team can position themselves anywhere in the court. The point is lost or won when the ball drops dead in the court, goes out of the court or does not cross the net after being served three times by the team.

When playing, any part of the body other than the hands and arms may be used to hit the ball

Kite-flying is not confined to the state of Kelantan, but nowhere else in Malaysia are there to be found such elaborately constructed kites.

The complete kite assembly is known as wau in Kelantan from the resemblance of its wings to the Arabic letter and the term layang- layang or layangan is used in most of the other states.

The frame is made of thin jointed sections of bamboo covered with cellophane and is in two parts. the wings (sayap) and the tail fin (tanduk) joined by a stout midrib (tulang belokang). The wings, in the shape of a double convex bow, are usually made of buluh betung.

The tanduk is usually made of the tougher buluh duri and its design varies. ln the popular wau bulan it is concave-convex, of slightly shorter span than the wings. For extra rigidity the curved ends are braced to the wing-tips with thin bamboo struts.

These struts are often wound round with gaily coloured paper streamers (jejabu), and bunches of streamers with long paper tassel (belalai) are attached to the kepala, the thick nose of the kite which projects 12 inches or more forward of the line of the wings, to act as stabilizers in strong wind.

In the largest of kites, which stand ten feet high and have an eight-foot wing span, the backbone may be in two sections cross-braced to give additional strength. The two components are fixed to it with rattan slip-knots (tall teraju).

The thin fabric is often covered with painted paper strips, charms and the conventional patterns of Malay art. Kite-flying contests in Kelantan are keenly attended. All the villagers arrive at the chosen ground, usually open padi fields. Should there be too many competitors, heats are played off to select the finalists.

The winner is the man whose kite reaches the greatest vertical height above ground. The string is the same thin twine used for making fishing-nets and is sometimes marked in even lengths with coloured thread.

When some ten kites are all flying close together in a distant corner of the sky the naked eye cannot distinguish the highest.

So the competitors tie their strings to a horizontal bar five feet above the ground and the judge estimates the length of each string and its angle of inclination to the ground and announce the winner.

The length of the string is of less height-gaining value than its angle to the ground, and this depends on the skill of the flier in designing his kit, in placing his stabilizers and in attaching his string to make the best use of the prevailing wind.

Most favoured for height contests is the wau bulan which remains steady in a variable wind once it is well up. Other types of kite are the wau puyuh, with projections giving a backward sweep to the wing-tips, wau bayan. wau kucing, wau ikan, wau kikir, mostly used for show purposes.

There is also a biplanar kit (wau berlaki) with two wings held together by cross-bracing like a model aircraft. A device shaped like a violinist's bow, a piece of split leaf fibre. (daun busar) held under tension between the ends of the bow is often seen in exhibitions. It is fixed transversely to the back of the kite and gives out a loud low-pitched note or harmony of notes when the wind blows across it in flight.

There is also a form of contest for two kites in which a section of the string nearest the kite is smeared with powdered glass.

The object is then for either kite so to be maneuvered in flight that it cuts the other drift by severing its string near the head.

in this game, one player is chosen to be ‘It’.

He will stand ahead of the other players with his back towards them. As he steps forward, he chants ‘A E I O U’. and the other players advance at the same time behind him.

At the letter ‘U’ all the players behind ‘it’ must freeze in their positions and keep as still as possible, as ‘It’ swings around and tries to spot any movement.

A player caught moving will then become ‘it’.

This is a game played by children utilizing a stick and a bicycle rim.

The objective is to keep the bicycle rim in an upright position at all times, while propelling it forward with the stick.

Gasing is a giant spinning top that weighs approximately 5kg or 10lbs and may be large as dinner plate. The game usually played traditionally before the rice harvest season.

The player requires strengths, co-ordination and skill to play this game.

The top is set spinning by unfolding rope that has been wound around it. Then, it is scooped off the ground, whilst still spinning, using bat with a centre slit and transferred onto a low post with a mental receptacle. If the expertly hurled, it can spin for up to 2 hours.

Gasing or top spinning is split into two (2) categories. One is for ornamental purposes and while the other is for playing.

There is no fixed number of players and the game can be played either teams or individually. Firstly, a circle is drawn on the ground marking a circumstance within the top is to spin.

Then, a player holds the top in his hand and grips the loose end of the string between the fingers and throws it in the circle while at the same time pulls the string backwards that sends the top into a spinning action.

A Gasing or top spinning contest basically a friendly games where normally it have two (2) kinds of matches.

The first is the "spinning contest" and the second one is called the "striking match".

The "Spinning contest", is where someone that can spin his top for the longest time wins the match. Once the top has been launched, the top is carefully scooped off the ground using a thin wooden bat.

Then, it will be transferred to a little wooden surface and left to spin for as long as possible.

The trick here is to ensure that the top doesn't topple during the transit. Tough it may seem unbelievably so, the current record stands at two hours.

The "striking match" is far more exhilarating than the first. You won't need to stand there for hours watching a top spin and spin and spin.

The "striking match" is as the name suggests. Each contestant must try to hit their opponent's tops so that the already spinning tops will topple and loses its balance and speed.

This is a simple game played around the world with many names and variations. This game very common among children. The game is known by different names around the world.

o Rock-Paper-Scissors" (UK),

o "Ching Chong Cha" (South Africa),

o "Janken" (Japan),

o "Schnick, Schnack, Schnuck" (Germany),

o "Chin Chan Pu" (Mexico)

It's a good way to decide who's turn it is to do something, and it's also played competitively.

The game is often used as a choosing method in a way similar to coin flipping, drawing straws, or throwing dice.

Unlike truly random selection methods, however, rock-paper-scissors can be played with a degree of skill by recognizing and exploiting non-random behavior in opponents.

STEP ONE:

Shape one hand into a first shape. - Both of you must move your fists up and down three times while saying together "rock, paper, scissors" (the fist coming down each time a word is said). Do not touch each other; this motion is performed entirely up and down in the air in front of you.

STEP TWO:

Make a gesture on the third count. - There are three gestures you can make, and which one you choose is up to you.

STEP THREE:

Figure out if you won; Rock smashes scissors, scissors cut paper, paper covers rock. - The winner can demonstrate their victory by "acting out" their gesture (e.g., if you make scissors and the other person makes paper, you can close your fingers around their flat hand to mimic scissors cutting paper). If you both turn out to make the same gesture, it's a tie, and you have to try again.

STEP FOUR:

Play two out of three (2/3). This is optional, but most people prefer to play three rounds.

Sometimes, the loser of the initial game will call for "two out of three", so that they can have another chance to win.

VARIATION ONE

This is an interesting children's game suitable to the played outdoors or around the house compound near small undergrowths like the lalang or long grass and small shrubs.

The game usually involves two teams. One team will hide and the other team will try to seek them out. Each team has an equal number of players of at least 3 or more persons per team.

There is no leader for each team because every player will try to show his/her ingenuity. However, the winner will be the last player sought out or when the team searching for the other team gives up in defeat.

The hiding place must be within the area which has been decided. Those who go out of bounds are considered cheats.

After going into hiding and giving the signal ‘ready’, a player cannot shift from his/her hiding place.

When a team goes into hiding, the other team must gather together outside the hiding area. This team will call out ‘ready’ or ‘not yet’. When there is no answer, it means the search is on.

The first round is complete when all players who are hiding have been sought out. Then, the other team will hide.

This goes on with both teams taking their turns to hide and search. The game ends when both teams agree to do so. However, if the team whose turn to hide wants to continue playing, then, the game must go on.

VARIATION TWO

Any number can play, usually a minimum of two players and a maximum of ten.

The group decides who shall be the Seeker.

The Seeker shall stand at a spot that has been chosen as a ‘goal’. At the ‘goal’, the Seeker shall close his eyes and counts to ten while the other players find a place to hide. As soon as The Seeker counts ten, he then seeks out those who are hiding.

As soon as he spots out a player who is hiding he will call him by his name and at once returns to touch the ‘goal’ before the sought out player gets to the ‘goal’.

The first player to be spotted out and named becomes the next seeker if he does not reach the goal before the seeker.

When the player in hiding reaches the goal first. he shall call out to the others to come out of hiding and the game restarts the same seeker reprising his role.

A simpler variation to the game is that when a seeker spots and correctly names any of the players who are hiding, he who is spotted and named then becomes the next seeker

  VARIATION ONE

The game is played on open ground with marbles .  It is played on open ground. The player participating in the game should make a hole bigger than the size of the marble. The distance between the marble and the standing line is about 10 to 15 feet.

The game commences with each player throwing his marble from the standing line towards the marble hole. The player whose marble lands nearest to or in the hole will be the first to

start the game. Meanwhile, the player whose marble lands furthest away from the hole will place his marble lie near the hole.

The players will hit this marble by turns. When the players complete their turn to hit the marble, the marble is then thrown towards the hole. If the marble fails to land inside the hole, it will continue to be hit by the other players until it succeeds in landing inside the hole, and the game ends.

When the game ends. it can be started again. The game is replayed until the players are satisfied.

VARIATION TWO

This form of playing marbles is also very popular. Up to five players can play this format which requires three holes slightly larger than the marbles used to be dug on the ground.

The three holes are dug three meters apart and are numbered as follows:

Hole 1 , 5, 9

3 meter space

Hole 2, 4, 6, 8, 10

3 meter space

Hole 3, 7

--------------------------------------STARTING LINE -----------------------------------

  Each player must pot his marble into all 10 holes, beginning with hole 1. The last player to pot his marble in all the 10 holes loses.

All five players stand on the starting line. and throw their marbles towards hole 1. The first to fifth starters are decided by the position of their marbles to hole 1. The player whose marble enters hole 1 or is nearest to hole 1 starts first (henceforth called First Starter).

If First Starter's marble pots hole 1 on his first throw. he may hit all the other marbles away from hole 1 before throwing his marble to hole 2. If his marble pots hole 2. he may proceed to hole 3, 4. and 6 and so on until he completes potting all the 10 holes.

During his turn to pot any hole. he may hit his opponents‘marbles away from the holes.

Once First Starter fails to pot a hole, the Second Starter plays. If his marble lies near the target hole, he must pot it, and then go on to the next hole. If, on his turn, his marble is a distance away from the target hole, he may approach the hole by hitting another player's marble.

The loser of the game has to pay a penalty. The loser puts his foot on hole 1 heel facing the Starting Line.  All the other players stand on the Starting Line and shoot their marbles towards Loser's heel

 

PHILIPPINES

This game is a version of the popular ‘tug-of-war’.

Two circles each with a radius of one meter are drawn on the ground, about two meters apart measured from the edge of each circle.

Two contestants of approximately equal weight stand inside the circle, a rope tied around each other's waist.

The objective of the game is for the contestants to try to pull the other out of the circle, or attempt to throw out of balance his opponent so that his foot or any part of his body will touch the restraining line of the circle.

The loser will carry the winner on his back who will do a ‘victory lap’ around the playfield.

This game is popular among children who go out in the forest to gather firewood. The number of players can be from two to ten or more.

Each player wagers a piece of firewood, about half a meter to one meter long.

These pieces of firewood called taya corresponding to the number of contestants are arranged in a vertical position standing on the ground like the framework of a tent.

The players each have a bato, a piece of wood the length of which is left to the choice of the player, but usually this ranges from half a meter long, or longer.

This bato is what the player will use to try to topple down the firewood (taya) arranged vertically on the ground.

The game is started by each player taking turns in throwing his bato away from the taya, and the player with the further bato from the taya will be the first one who will attempt to hit and topple down the firewood (taya).

The firewood which is hit and falls on the ground will be his. If all the firewood are felled then the game is finished.

Otherwise, the next player whose bato is furthest from the taya will take his turn, and so on until all firewood have been hit and toppled to the ground.

The winner is the one who will accumulate the greatest number of firewood.

The Philippines was under Spanish rule for over 40 years, and it is therefore natural that some Philippines games will exhibit Spanish influence.

This game is usually played by contestants on horseback, but because of the popularity of the present-day bicycle, the game can be played by children riding their bicycles.

This is a very popular game played during town fiestas, or during celebration of special holidays.

Several brass rings (usually corresponding to the number of prizes given) about one and one-half to two centimeters in diameter, are tied with a thin and easily breakable thread.

These are hung on a rope placed across a street or wide open space, about three meters or more above the ground, both within reach of the players riding on a horse or bicycle.

Sometimes, a bright ribbon is attached to the rings so that these can be better spotted from a distance.

The object of the game is for players, holding a piece of stick, (usually a barbeque stick is used) to ride through under the rope (without slowing down) and attempt to gain possession of a ring by ‘spearing' his stick through it.

This game is played by children taking a swim in the river or lake.

Two teams compete against each other, and agree on a particular object, usually a stone to serve as the bato.

While members of one team stay o the surface of the water or on the shore, the other team will move in different directions in order to confuse the opponents, and hide the bato at the bottom of the water.

After doing so, the opposing team will attempt to find and recover the hidden stone (bato).

The team who fails to find the bato or takes longer to do it is the loser.

The losers then will carry the winners on their shoulders, and this usually is the beginning of another native game called ‘BIAC’ wherein the object is to try to pull down the opponent.

This is also played in the water, with the team having the more number of downs is declared as the winner.

Surprisingly, this game is more popular in the northern provinces of the Philippines where coconut is not as extensively grown compared to the southern part of the country.

The game is played either by two players competing against each other, or by more in an open type of competition.

Each player chooses a coconut, fully husked and quite aged.

The object of the game is for each player to attempt to crack and break open the coconut of his opponent by throwing his against that of his opponent.

The coconuts are placed on a specified area, usually above five meters long. and three meters wide. This area is bound by banana trunks to prevent the coconuts from scattering.

The competing players put their coconuts within the restraining area bounded by banana trunks.

The first player chosen to have the first turn will roll his coconut on the ground and at-tempt to crack or break the coconuts of his opponents.

Each player takes his turn.

The winner is the one whose coconut remains intact or unbroken.

This the opposite of the Tug of War.

Two teams face each other while clasping the opposite ends of a 15 feet long bamboo pole.

They then try to push each other towards the designated end line.

When the front player of a Team steps on the end line, the other team wins.

A team is composed of 5 players.

The players of The two teams face each other. Each team holds on to one end of the bamboo.

This game is played by kicking the ball towards a target, usually a box containing a gift hung by a net suspended between two bamboo poles.

The objective is to hit the target with the ball.

Materials needed are a woven rattan ball, Dalapi or foot gloves, coloured handkerchiefs (one for each player), Net and 2 poles of 25 to 30 feet height.

Each player shall have dalapi or foot glove to protect the players’ feet.

Each player must hold a brightly coloured handkerchief.

The players form two lines facing each other (3 meters from the mangis or net).

The tosser stands at their middle.

At the given signal, the tosser tosses the ball to the first player.

The first player snaps his handkerchief then kicks the ball towards the target hanging by the mangis, then the tosser tosses the ball to the second player, and so on.

The player who hits the target the most number of times, wins.

SINGAPORE

This game is played in many countries spreading from North America to Asia and China. However the game is played with some variation in each country.

In some Asian countries, the highlight of the game is when the cat eats the mouse after it is caught.

The eating process provides much amusement as this depends on the imagination of the cat.

In North America the drama of the game is less evident. in Singapore the game is played minus the eating process.

In China, the Chinese children wear masks of tigers, mice, cats, bears, dogs or some other animals.

The game is suitable for both boys and girls. However, it should be played with at least ten children. or as many as 30 children.

The game is usually played outdoors or inside a hall and no apparatus is necessary.

The cats objective is to catch the mouse while the mouse's objective is to run away from the cat, so as not to get caught.

The objective of the other players is to protect the mouse and prevent it from being caught.

Two players are selected, one to be the kucing (cat) and the other to be the tikus (mouse).

The other players join hands to form a large circle. The mouse stands inside the circle, while the cat stands outside.

The children holding hands revolve around the mouse. When the players stop moving around the mouse, the chase begins.

The cat quickly moves into the circle between the joined hands of the players, either by crawling under or jumping over the joined hands.

The cat tries to ‘tangkap' (catch) the mouse. As soon as the mouse sees the cat in the circle, it quickly moves out of the circle, between the joined hands of the players.

The players try to protect the mouse by raising their hands for the mouse to quickly escape. but lowering their hands to slow down the pursuit of the cat.

The chase continues with the cat weaving itself in and out of the circle between the joined hands of the players in pursuit of the mouse.

The game ends when the cat succeeds in catching the mouse.

Two new players may be chosen to become the cat and the mouse to continue to another round of chasing.

The game was also known as batu keleret. ‘Batu’ refers to the stone or tile used in the game, while ‘keleret' refers to the action of sliding the stone, with an underhand throw.

The game requires two or more players. However, the number of players must always be an even number.

The players may play in pairs or in two teams.

Two parallel lines L1 and L2 are drawn on the ground about 10 paces (4m) apart.

Each player selects a flat piece of stone or tile.

1. All the players stand behind the starting line (L1) and take turns to throw their pieces of tokens on or as close as possible to second line (L2).

2. Assuming there are 6 players, the first three players whose token are on or closest to L2 wins the privilege of becoming riders. The other three players whose tokens are furthest away from L2 assume the role of horses. The horse will carry the rider piggy - back throughout the course of the game.

3. The thrower whose token is closest or L2 is the first choice at selecting his horse. The player whose token is second closest to L2 has second choice to choose his horse and so on.

4. The riders climb on to the backs of the horses at L2. Each horse picks up his own and his rider's token and then piggy back the rider to L1 and back to L2. This is counted as one lap. However, for the rider whose token in step 2 touched L1, he gets to ride on his horse for 3 laps.

5. After the ride/riders in step 4, the horses with the riders still on their back, hand the tokens in their possession to their respective riders.

6. Each rider throws his token in front of him. The distance of the throws depends on the chance he wishes to take and how he judges the skill of his horse.

7. The riders hand the other token to their hoses. The horse may try to hit the token that the rider has thrown in Step 6, or let the rider take the chance.

8. If the horse accepts the throw, and is able to hit his rider's token, his role as a horse ends, and the game starts all over again. However, if throws and misses the rider's token, he continues as a horse, and carries his rider to where the two tokens are and picks them up. Step 5, 6 and 7 are then continued until the horse succeeds in hitting the rider's token, whereby the game ends.

9. If the horse refuses to make the throw, the rider will have to throw. If the rider foils to hit his own token thrown in Step 6, he loses the privilege of being a rider, and the game ends.

10. However, if the rider succeeds in hitting his own token, then he continues to ride on his horse to the spot where the two tokens ore. The horse picks up the two tokens for the rider and the game continues from this spot from Step 6.

Method of Play (tor teams ):

Players may play in two teams. To determine which team shall ride, the players of both teams take turns to throw their tokens at L2.

A player may assist his team to win the privilege of riding, by throwing his token so that it pushes his teammate's token nearer to L2.

The player whose token is closest to L2 earns the role of riders for his whole team.

The game continues from step 4 to Step 7 described above. At the point of the game described in Step 6, each pair of rider and horse takes turns to throw.

Once the first horse succeeds in ending his role as a horse. or the first rider loses his privilege as a rider, the next pair proceeds as in Step 6, and so on to complete Step 7.

Instead of carrying the rider piggy - back, the horse can opt to be led by the ear, i.e. the rider pinches the ear of the horse and leads him forward throughout the game, until the whole process of throwing and hitting the token ends.

This option is normally taken by girls or boys who are unable to carry their riders.

THAILAND

Muay Thai or Thai boxing was probably invented for the purpose of preparing young men for combat when wars were frequent.

With prolonged peace belween wars, Muay Thai became a sport which provided physical fitness for participants and exciting entertainment for spectators. In the olden days, training to become a skilled Muay Thai was favoured by male adolescents of noble as well as common families.

High priests and even kings were known to be active Muay Thai followers. King Tiger of Ayuthaya (T703-T709) disguised himself as a commoner in order to fight local boxers on equal Terms.

The king beat a champion by a knock out and was given one baht as a winning prize.

Matching was based on skill levels rather than sizes or weights of contestants. In most cases gentlemen agreement before the fight formed the most important part of the deal.

In the present day. Muay Thai has been developed into a highly competitive professional sport. Muay Thai boxers subject themselves strict training schedules. In most Muay Thai boxing gymnasiums, Muay Thai boxers and trainers will be seen busy working on equipment such as punching-kicking bags. punching balls, target pads, skipping ropes and so on.

Besides professional gymnasiums, there are some educational institutions which offer courses on Muay Thai. The aim of such courses is to inculcate in their charges Thai values such as chivalry, self-confidence. compassion, prudence and sportsmanship. Muay Thai as Thai cultural heritage represents a Thai identity in the sport world and undoubtedly will be passed on to succeeding generations.

In the olden days, Muay Thai were usually held on an open-air ground free from barricades or objects which may pose hazards to the boxers.

Nowadays, Muay Thai contests are staged in an equipped with a regular boxing ring. The side of the standard square ring can be from 18 to 24 feet in length.

The raised platform of the ring is marked by four stretched ropes which are covered with cloth or soft hide to prevent injuries to the boxers.

The spaces between the lowest rope and the platform and between the two consecutive ropes are one foot. The surface of the plattorm is lined with canvas stuffed with cork or reed to the thickness of about one inch.

Muay Thai contests are always accompanied by traditional background music. The ensemble providing the music is situated at the ringside.

The musical instruments are Javanese reed-pipe, high- pitched drum (or male drum), low-pitched drum (or female drum) and finger cymbals. The tune played by the ensemble begins with a slow movement for the preliminary part and picks up rhythms as the fight proceeds. Towards the end of the last round, the tune quickens to urge the boxers to make a last ditch effort.

For contests, Muay Thai boxers of today wear shorts, anklets(optional), boxing gloves and a metal protective shield in the lower abdomen. Besides the standard set of outtits, Muay Thai boxers may wear sport armbands made from recl or white strips of cloth. The armbands are inscribed with sacred letters and are supposed to give ‘magical’ power to boxers who wear them. A Muay Thai boxer will be seen entering the ring wearing a headband made from twisted strings of cloth or rattan rod wrapped in a cloth cover. The headband is a very important item in the ritual that comes before the actual contest.

Before the contest may begin, Muay Thai boxers are engaged in the pre-tournament ritual of paying homage to their teachers. Wearing the ritual headband, the boxer squats in a sitting position with both knees touching each other and pointing forward, and looks as though he is in a deep trance. The boxer then slowly and humbly prostrates himself with executing arms and hands gesture as a means of curtsying the master who teaches him the art of self-defense. After three rounds of curtsying the boxer proceeds to perform the ‘paying homage‘ dance.

When all is completed each boxer goes to his corner to have the headband removed by his trainer and return to the mid-ring to get on with the boxing match.

The purpose of the pre-fight ‘paying homage’ dance is to announce the boxing school to which the boxer belongs, to intimidate the opponent and partly to evoke self-confidence. In the olden days the dance permitted the boxer to survey the vantage or non-vantage points of the fighting ground.

In the past there were no fixed rules nor regulations governing Muay Thai bouts. It is however understood that Muay Thai boxers may punch, jab with either foot, strike with either elbow in the forward or reversed manner, deliver hip-swing or reversed kick, execute knee strike even when holding onto the opponent's neck and so on.

There are blows which are forbidden. With the development of the Muay Thai into a modern sport. rules and regulations are becoming more and more standardized and accepted.

Cream, herbs or any solutions which may cause discomfort or adverse effects on boxers are not permitted.

Each Muay Thai bout cannot be more than 5 rounds. Each round lasts 3 minutes and the resting period between rounds is 2 minutes

Saba is one of the oldest traditional games played by the Thais and the Mon ethnics in Thailand since time immemorial. The simple equipment employed in the game and the manner in which the game is conducted place ‘saba' in the same category as skittles played with discs.

There are many versions of ‘saba' that survive to the present time. in the olden days the game provides opportunities for male and female adolescents to banter one another and to socialize.

For children the game could provide training in marksmanship and learning of names of various parts of the anatomy from which the ‘saba' disc is tossed. Saba games are usually played during the annual festival. For young children however, the game can be played at any time so long as there is a space and ready participants.

Players of the ‘saba' game may be young adults or children who are old enough to learn the rules of the game. Elderly people as a rule do not play ‘saba' even though there is nothing to prohibit them against active participation in the game.

Saba may be a game between two players or between two teams. For a ‘saba‘ game played by young adults and adolescents, one team is usually all male and the other all female. The number of team members is not limited but often kept within five.

The most important item of equipment for ‘saba' game is the ‘saba' seed which has the size of a knee cap and is obtained from a species of vine plant. In the Thai language, the knee caps, because of its similarity with the ‘saba' seed is known as ‘saba' bone. ln some cases flat circular discs made from hard wood and comparable to the ‘saba' seed in size are used instead.

The space that is required by the ‘saba' game should not be less than seven metres in length, and five metres in width. Preferably, it should be in the open and the ground should be flat and reasonably dry.

There are several versions of ‘saba' game. The version presented here is probable the most common and still played by small children in many parts of Thailand. The rules of the ‘saba' game are flexible.

Players are divided into two teams each of which has the same number of team members. One team assumes the role of defense while other the role of offense. Any suitable toss-up may be employed to decide which team should have the right to play an offensive or defensive role. The defensive players place their ‘saba‘ seeds or discs on the edges at one end of the ground to serve as target pins for the offensive team.

Players in the offensive team take up positions at the other end of the ground, so that each offensive player stands directly opposite to his counterpart in the defensive team.

Each offensive player begins by tossing his or her ‘saba' disc from his forehead towards the pin set up by his counterpart in the defensive team. From the position the ‘saba' disc comes to rest, the offensive player uses one hand to hold the index finger of the other hand and applies spring action to propel his or her disc to hit the pin.

If the offensive player fails in his attempt to hit the pin, he or she becomes immobilized. For the offensive player who succeeds, he goes back to the starting position and proceeds to the next move.

In this case the offensive player will toss the disc from his eye. There is at least ten moves which the offensive player is expected to play.

In these routine moves the player tosses his ‘saba' disc from:

1. Forehead 2. Eye 3. Nose 4. Mouth 5. Throat 6. Stomach 7. Between knees 8. Between calves 9. Between angle bones 10. Between heels

In the last move the player stands on one foot while using the back of other foot to carry ‘saba' disc. From this position the player hops gently towards the pin and slow drops his or her ‘saba' disc onto the pin.

When all the players in the offensive team are immobilized on account of missing the target in any of the moves, the two teams change their roles. When it is the turn of the starting team to be on the offense again, each player in the offensive team must start from the move which he or she failed to complete.

The team in which all the players finish all moves in the routine becomes the winning team.

‘Ngu Kin Harng' literally translated as ‘Tail-catching snake’ is a children's game.

Players of ‘Ngu Kin Harng' may be all boys or all girls or mixed. The number of players is noT limited but is normally kept to between seven to ten players.

The game is a contest between one player and the rest.

The one player. who comprises one Team is called ‘Father Snake’. The other Team is led by a player To be known as ‘Mother Snake‘ with each of the remaining members of his team to play the role of ‘Baby Snakes’.

To start the game all Baby Snakes are lined up one behind the other to form a standing row with Mother Snake standing at the head of the line. Except for Mother Snake, each one in the row uses both hands to hold the one in front by the waist.

When this is completed father Snake takes up his position facing Mother Snake.

Mother Snake and Father snake proceed with a dialogue which is a crucial part of the game. The verbal exchange goes something like :

Father Snake : “Dear Mother Snake"

Mother Snake : “Yes, Father Snake"

Father Snake : “From which well do you drink?"

Mother Snake : “We drink from the well in the sandy ground"

Mother Snake and Baby Snakes in a chorus : “Round and round we go"

The row of Mother Snake and Baby Snakes then moves from side to side to simulate the side winding action of a snake. Then comes the second round of the dialogue.

Father Snake : “From which well do you drink?"

Mother snake: “We drink from the well in stone”

Mother Snake and Baby Snakes in a chorus : “Home and home we do"

Once again the row of Mother Snake and Baby Snake moves from side to side to simulate the side winding action of a snake. This is followed by the third round of dialogue :

Father Snake : “From which well do you drink?"

Mother Snake : "We drink from the well in grief"

Mother Snake and Baby Snakes in a chorus : “Life and life we do”

Again the row of Mother Snake and Baby Snakes moves as it has done before. After three rounds of a similar dialogue comes the fourth which somewhat departs from the previous three.

Father Snake : “From which well do you drink"

Mother Snake : “We drink from the well in grief"

Father Snake : “Which is edible, head or tail?"

Mother Snake : “The middle part and that avails”

With this answer the climax of the game begins. Father Snake immediately rushes at the line of Baby Snakes to catch the last Baby Snake in the line as his first victim, while Mother Snake will do her best to fend off the attack and protect all her Baby Snakes in the line.

Father Snakes unhampered by the connected long row of Baby Snake always succeeds in detaching and capturing the last baby Snake in the line.

The captive is subjected to a cross-examination which goes as following.

Father Snake : “With whom do you want to stay, Mum or Dad?

Baby Snake : “l stay with Dad"

Father Snake: “Down in the hot chilli sauce with your ripped off head. Young Cad!"

Alternative lines for the caught baby Snake and Father Snake are as follows :

Baby Snake : “ I stay with Mum”

Father snake : “Down the river in the cast-off raft, Old Chum!”

The game terminates with the dialogue between Father Snake and its victim. It may begin again by immobilizing the caught and cross-examined Baby Snake and the players go through the same procedure.

Seemingly trivial and pointless to the modern mind. the game of ‘Ngu Kin Harng' is full of symbolic significance. The symbolic representation serves to remind us of many things that we may have long forgotten.

The dialogue of the game hints that women in the distant past were the providers of water. It also suggests the traditional images of the father and the mother. The father represents authority and one to be feared. appeased and propitiated, while the mother is associated with solace, gratification and protection.

Some see in the game a description of married life, which is bound to have many ups and downs. Whenever the family is broken children are destined to their own fate.

The game of ‘Kam Sao’ is a contest in physical strength between contestants without any attempt to inflict injuries on each other.

This game is considered to be very old and is still played today by children of the northeastern part of Thailand.

Contestants are usually boys ranging from 7 to 15 years old. There is however no rule that prohibits girls and adults from taking part in the game.

To make the game an interesting contest. the two contestants must be comparable in strength.

To play the game of ‘kam sao’ a sturdy bamboo rod about one meter long or a staff of similar description may be used.

Three parallel lines at the interval of about 1 meter are drawn on the ground. Two contestants, one of each side of the middle line stands facing each other. Each contestant uses both hands to hold the rod from the broad-side-on position. in some version, the rod is placed perpendicular to the parallel lines and the contestants hold the rod from the end-side-on position.

At the starting signal, each contestant pushes the bamboo rod in effort to force the opponent toward the line at his rear. The contestant who succeeds is the winner.

‘Sua Kham Huay' may be described as a children's version of high jumping. There is no definite record of ‘Sua Kham Huay' in early times.

According to oral tradition, the game of ‘Sua Kham Huay' is known to be played by temple boys during the early evening hours.

Players of ‘Sua Kham Huay' are usually boys from 10 to 15 years old. Girls in proper attire can also participate in the game. There is no limit on the number of players.

No equipment is needed what so ever in this game. Only a little running space is required.

Instead of a crossbar a top the two standards, one player is chosen as an obstacle or ‘crossbar’ over which contestants jump.

By varying sitting and standing positions, the ‘crossbar’ player raise the level progressively higher as contestants succeed in jumping over it.

The positions of the ‘crossbar’ player are a follows’ :

l. Sitting with both legs stretched forward.

2. From the position described above, the left leg is put directly on to of the right leg.

3. The left arm is stretched to touch the toe of the left foot.

4. The right arm is stretched over and parallel to the left arm.

5. The ‘crossbar’ player in the standing position bends his back downward to that both hands touch the angles.

6. As 5, with both hands touch the middle parts of the lower legs.

7. As 5, with both hands touch the kneecaps.

8. As 5, with both hands touch the middle parts of the upper legs.

The contestants must clear the obstacle completely for positions 1 to 4. For positions 5 to 8, the contestant while jumping over the ‘crossbar’ player is allowed to lay both hands on his back. Contacts other than this are not permitted. The jumper is given only one attempt to clear the height.

The jumper who fails in the attempt to jump over the ‘crossbar’ is out of the contest. The jumper who clears the highest height is the winner.

If two or more jumpers are tied, they must jump over the highest level for distance. The jumper who clears the height and covers the longest distance measured from the ‘crossbar’ to the landing spot is the winner.

‘Ka Fak Khai' is played by children. The origin of the game appears to have been lost in antiquity.

Players of ‘Ka Fak Khai' game may be boys, girls or mixed. In any case the players are not likely to be older than thirteen years of age. The number of players in ‘Ka Fak Khai’game is not restricted, but normally kept no more than ten.

The game may be played indoors or outdoors if there is sufficient space which should be of the order of ten to fifteen square meters. Each player finds a rock to represent an egg. A circle with the radius of about an arm length of the average player is drawn on the ground.

To start the game, all players are required to draw sticks from the hand of one player. One who draws the shortest stick becomes the ‘crow’.

The ‘crow’ sits inside the circle while the rest of the player gather outside around the circle. All players outside the circle place their rocks representing eggs in the middle of the circle.

The idea of the game is for the players outside the circle to snatch the ‘eggs’ without being touched by the ‘crow’. The ‘crow’ will do its best to protect the ‘eggs’ by warding off the busy hands of the attackers.

If an attacker is touched by the ‘crow’, the attacker and the ‘crow’ exchange their roles in the new round of the game. If all the ‘eggs’ are lost to the attackers, the ‘crow’ is blind folded while the attackers hide their spoils.

When all is done. the blind is removed and the ‘crow’ goes about looking for the ‘eggs’. The owner of the first ‘eggs’ founded is identified so that he or she exchanges roles with the ‘crow’ for the next round of the game.

There is no restriction on the number of players. However to make the game proceed in an enjoyable manner, the number of players should be about fifteen.

The game is usually played in the open where there is a flat ground free from any obstacles. Other than this no special equipment is required.

A circle of the size commensurate to the number of players is drawn onto the ground. The radius of the circle may be adjusted to enable the game proceed in an interesting manner.

To start the game, all players draw sticks from the hand of one player. The player who draws the shortest stick becomes ‘Mad Dog‘ or ‘Ma Bah‘.

All the players except the ‘Mad Dog’ gather inside the circle, while the player who plays ‘Ma Bah‘ stays outside the circle. At the word ‘go’ the ‘Mad Dog’ runs around but outside the circle and tries to touch one of the players inside the circle.

The tactic of the ‘Mad Dog’ is to create panic among the players within the circle, and this will make it easy for the ‘Mad Dog’ to get an easy victim. When this happens, the victim and the ‘Mad Dog’ exchange their roles for the next round of the game.

Players of ‘Tob Plae' are small boys or girls or mixed.

As a rule, players are below thirteen years of age. Two players are required to play the game. The game can be played in a sitting room or on a lawn or on a patch under a big tree.

Two players sit across-legged facing each other. Each player raises both hands with the palms facing the palms of the opposing player. Both players bring the palms to touch one another.

Both players then sing a chant and make gestures which correspond to the words of the chant which goes as :

Plan. Plan, Plan

Smack high. smack low

Smack your front, smack your back

We smack together

The preliminary chant is followed by lengthy ones. While chanting each player goes through the following hand manoeuvers:

1. Clap own hands once

2. Stretch out the right arm so that the right palms touch each other

3. Clap own hands once more

4. Stretch out the left arm so that the left palms touch each other

The chant may go as:

Yah, Yah, Yah

Buy a lion-head brand of fish sauce

Put a woman to a torture

Subject a man to an abuse

Disembowel a witch

Catch millipedes for noodle making

Make a kitten and black cats dance

Pak-poo, Ying chub!

or

A train is bound for Korat

At a sound of passing wind, it arrives in Ratchburi

At another sound of passing wind, it arrives at a company building

What a company

A short tale will now be fold

Grandfather and grandmother are a sleep

A princess blows a reed pipe

Mother dear shows her sagging breast

The God of Hell sits in an astriding position

Father and Mother have gone to sleep Leaving only two of us

Pak-Pao, Ying chub

Winning and Losing

The climax of The game comes with the end of the gibberish - ‘Pak-Pao Ying Chub’.

Each player without any sign of hesistation use a rlght hand to make any of the following three hand gestures : 1. a fist for a hammer 2. a stretched palm for a piece of cloth 3. a V-sign for a pair of scissors

If hammer, cloth and scissors, symbolized by the hand gestures are arranged ln a clockwise cyclic order, each

object ranks higher than the one which follows it in the cyclic order and thus scores a corresponding win.

The loser in the toss -up must bend downward and the winner is given a chance to use one of the fingers to poke the back of the head of the loser. The loser must guess which finger the winner is using.

The guess may or may not be correct, but the game ends anyway, and both players may begin a new round of ‘Tob Plae’.